Lifelong learning & the continued participation of older Norwegian adults in employment
WP Leader: Pål Børing.
Participants: Tove Midtsundstad, Roy A. Nielsen and Jens B. Grøgaard.
Objectives: We examine how participation in lifelong learning affects (i) the probability of continuing in work among older workers, and (ii) the real (or effective) retirement age. Lifelong
WP1Systematicreview of recent literature & policy measuresWP2Lifelonglearning & the continued participation of older Norwegian adults in employmentWP3A comparative study of the capability of being employed, lifelong learning and skillsWP4Learning trajectories in the workplaceWP5Policyrecommendations, dissemination & stakeholder involvement learning can increase the probability of continuing in work, and may therefore reduce the retirement propensity. As a result, the real retirement age may increase.
Approaches and applied method: Based on data from the Learning Conditions Monitor (LCM), we will measure lifelong learning in terms of three main forms: further education (leading to formally acknowledged educational credentials), non-formal training and courses, and learning intensive work (where workers must continually learn something new and there are good opportunities to acquire knowledge and skills). The LCM 2014 show that older adults participate less in lifelong learning than younger adults do.
In Norway the statutory retirement age before 2011 was 67 for both genders. However, many employees have had the possibility to draw a contractual pension (AFP) or an occupational pension from the age of 62, or 57 in some occupations. In addition, a disability pension gives workers with serious health problems the possibility to work part-time or leave the labour market entirely, at any age. The real retirement age for a 50-year old worker was therefore 63.5 in 2010 (Haga 2013).
Data: We use two data sources from Statistics Norway (SSB), which can be linked to each other: matched employer-employee register data (panel data), and data from the LCM.
a) The LCM is an annual survey of the conditions for learning and skills development among adults, with particular emphasis on working life. The LCM is carried out as a supplement to the Labour Force Surveys. The LCM has been based on a large representative sample of about 12,000 people of working age (both employed, unemployed and persons outside the labour force).3
b) Norwegian matched employer-employee register data consist of administrative files from SSB. These data contain information about all persons of working age in Norway. For each person we will have information about their gender, age, education, occupation, industrial affiliation, previous work experience, and income data about transfers (such as pensions).
Description of work and sub-tasks: We will use register and LCM data for several years. Based on LCM, we will differentiate between older workers who participate and do not participate in lifelong learning. Linking the LCM to the register data, we will be able to examine whether participants and non-participants in lifelong learning are still employed in subsequent years. Research questions: Is the probability of continuing in work higher among participants than among non-participants in each of the three main forms of lifelong learning? Are some of the main forms of lifelong learning more effective in increasing this probability than the other forms? Since we have register panel data, we will measure the short-term and long-term effects of lifelong learning on this probability.
The matched employer-employee register data for 2012 shows that the proportion of employed persons increases with increasing educational level for different age groups. This indicates that increased formal competence may increase the continued participation of adults in employment, which again may increase the real retirement age in the population. Furthermore, previous studies show social differences in lifelong learning participation rates; adults with a high level of education are more likely to participate in lifelong learning than those with low-education (OECD 2014, Børing et al. 2013). We therefore have to control for persons’ level of primary education in the analysis. Also the type of education and occupation are important control covariates, see Section 2.
D 2.1 – Study of how the probability of continuing in work is related to lifelong learning among older Norwegian workers
D 2.2 – Study of how the real retirement age is related to lifelong learning among older Norwegian workers
3 The LCM 2014 show that almost all people who have participated in either formal or non-formal training are employed. The LCM can thus to a small extent be used to examine how lifelong learning affects the probability of being employed, which is the focus in WP3.